A Critical Study of Quartet Logical Relationships

Document Type : Original Article



  The Muslim logicians’ approaches to analyze the relationships, their rules and applications, were not on the same level. They have deliberated the relationship between two concepts in a systematized structure, but have an incomprehensive discussion on the rules and inductive attributes of relationships, as they have not considered the distinction between different features of them. Therefore, they have made some fundamental mistakes in analyzing and codifying Aristotelian logic. practically speaking, the rules of relationships are not supposed to be part of Aristotelian logic; therefore, it is not possible to detect their views and theories about this issue, directly. The consideration of successor Muslim Logicians in referring to universals was in line with founding Logics of Sets. Also, this resemblance between Relationship Theory and Set Theory is apparent in their definition of relations. Taking into account the four relationships by traditional logicians, development of this theory in the light of their new terms among successor logicians, can be accounted as an evidence to refute this claim about their lack of consideration in Relationship Theory. In other words, although traditional logic is dependent upon single-monadic predication and intends to reduce all relationships to concepts, in some issues like the quartet relationships, as an introduction to set theory, they somehow faced with the issue of relationships, undoubtedly, there is no systematic discussion on relationships theory in Aristotle works and his adherent logicians